Nutritional Disorders



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Source - http://www.laramie1.org/modules/cms/pages.html



Definition of a nutritional disorder
Nutritional disorders can be caused by an insufficient intake of food or of certain nutrients, by an inability of the body to absorb and use nutrients, or by overconsumption of certain foods (WHO, 2010)
Types of nutritional disorders
· Anorexia Nervosa
· Bulimia Nervosa
· Obesity
· Food intolerances
· Food allergies
· Diabetes
· Anaemia
· Obsessive or Compulsive Eating
Impacts of nutritional disorders
· Growth and development
· Self- esteem
· Self worth
· Social interaction
· Behaviour
· Physical appearance
Practical implications, curriculum and teaching adaptions for teachers and school
· Healthy canteen
· Physical activity curriculum
· Zero tolerance bullying
· Counselling services
· Healthy harold
· Breakfast at school programs
Issues raised for educational settings
· Bullying
· Participation and involvement
· Achievement
· Behaviour
· Degree of disability/ condition
· Wellbeing and satisfaction
Statistics involving disorders
· Dieting is the most common behaviour that leads to eating disorders. (AABA, 1998)
· It is estimated that currently 11% of high school students have been diagnosed with an eating disorder. (ANAD)
· An estimated 3 million children have a food allergy
· Peanut allergies in children over a five year period

What is Anorexia Nervosa?
Anorexia Nervosa is an eating disorder characterised by unrealistic fear of weight gain, self-starvation, and conspicuous distortion of body image. The name comes from two Latin words that mean a nervous inability to eat (DSM-IV, 1994) anorexia.jpg
Source - http://juicefriends.com/hayley-wilde-the-woman-who-defeated-anorexia.html
Anorexia Nervosa
· Self starvation
· People with anorexia feel there is a disturbance in the way they feel about food, weight and body image
· People with anorexia often characterised as stubborn, appearance obsessed people who do not know when to stop dieting
What is Bulimia Nervosa?
Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder in which a person binges and purges. The person may eat a lot of food at once and then try to get rid of the food by vomiting, using laxatives, or sometimes over-exercising. People with bulimia are preoccupied with their weight and body image (University of Maryland Medical Centre). bulimia.jpg
Source - http://weighingthefacts.blogspot.com/2008/04/eating-disorders-bulimia-nervosa.html

Bulimia Nervosa
· Binge eating followed by forced vomiting
Symptoms of an eating disorder
· Poor self esteem
· Mood swings and depression
· Distorted body image
· Obsessive exercise
· Nutritional deficiencies
· Preoccupied with food and weight
· Weakness, fatigue and exhaustion
· Dental and gum problems
What causes eating disorders?
Most children who develop Anorexia do so between the ages of 11 and 14, some kids don’t feel good about themselves on the inside and this makes them try to change the outside. They might be depressed or stressed about things and feel as though they have no control over their lives. They see what they do or don’t eat as something they can control.
Sometimes children involved in many sports feel they need to change their body or be thin to compete. Girls who model are also will be more likely to develop an eating disorder. Girls know their bodies are being watched closely, and they may develop an eating disorder in an attempt to make their bodies more “perfect.”
When boys develop eating disorders, it is usually because they are involved in a sport that emphasises weight such as wrestling. Wrestlers compete based on weight classes. Wrestlers feel pressure to stay in their weight class
Eating disorders may also run in families, which means if someone in your family has one you might be at risk of developing one too. A child may be more likely to develop an eating disorder if their parents are overly concerned with the child’s appearance or if the parent is not comfortable with his or her own body.
Friends who spend time with you can influence you and how you see yourself. If your friends feel the most important thing is to be thin, you may start to feel that way too. If they begin to do unhealthy things to be thin, you might feel the pressure to do so also.
a) The impact of this particular condition on the individual, the person’s family, peers and acquaintances
Individual
· Food and eating dominate the life of a person with anorexia and bulimia nervosa
· Maintaining a low weight impacts an individual’s self confidence, self control and self worth
· Media portrays images of women that show desirable characteristics of how they wish to look, but this is almost impossible for women to achieve since it does not fit with our genetics that determine our body weight
· Media and fashion portrays that happiness and success comes with being extremely skinny
· Males and females that constantly idolise actors and models, believe that their body proportion must be similar or exact to gain success and happiness
· Sports and jobs that emphasise leanness to improve performance and appearance are increased risk for developing anorexia nervosa; e.g., gymnasts, dancers, jockeys and boxers.
· Physical appearance; loss and thinning of hair, impaired eyesight and rotting of teeth Family
· Often the relationship between the individual and family members can lead to breakdown
· Total communication may suffer
· Anger, sadness and shame may arise
· Guilt that they may have caused the disorder increases
Peers
· Increase the risk of other peers within the group from copying the individual
· Peers may reject the individual
· Bullying from other groups
· Frustration
· Levels of stress could arise
· Desire to be thin
· Lack of attention can lead to individuals performing higher risk activities
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b) The practical implications for teachers and schools, including curriculum and teaching adaptions
· Talk to students about nutrition and development and reassure students of the normal diversity of body sizes and shapes that exist among children
· Provide media learning to help students become aware of messages about body size, shape and beauty
· Teach students about good nutrition and healthy eating habits
· Develop policies that prohibit student athletes from engaging in harmful weight control or body building measures
· Encourage students to express their emotions in healthy ways, such as talking with a counsellor, teacher or fellow peers
· Provide students with diverse role models of all shapes and sizes who are recognised for their accomplishments not appearances
· Integrate topics related to eating disorders into learning
· If harmful behaviour involves vomiting after eating, keep the student in class for about an hour after eating to reduce vomiting
· Encourage positive peer interaction
· Support programs

c) The issues raised for teachers and those working in educational settings
· Avoiding power struggles with the student over food
· Bullying and labelling
· Lack of concentration
· Participation in sports decrease
· Achievement- grades
· Peer acceptance; social interaction
What is obesity?
Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health (WHO, 2010). obesity.jpgSource - http://whyy.org/cms/radiotimes/2010/02/16/tackling-childhood-obesity/Signs and symptoms
· Feeling of tight clothes
· Excessive weight gain
· Shortness of breath
· High blood and cholesterol levels
· Heartburn
a) The impact of this particular condition on the individual, the person’s family, peers and acquaintances
Individual
· Mental health
· Social functioning and acceptance
· Limitations due to emotional problems and body pain
· Sport limiting due to physical functioning and requirements
· Increased risk of high blood pressure, heart rate, diabetes, stroke, heart failure
· Self esteem, sexual life, public distress, work
· Decreased quality of life
· Bullying and rejection due to weight
· Difficulty performing daily routines in severe cases
· Loss of fulfilment and self worth
· Lack of enjoyment
· Anger, sadness and shame may arise
Family
· Family meals need to be altered
· Encouragement and support towards alternatives
· Individual can become dependent on the family to carry out tasks
· Siblings may become affected with the bullying of their brother/sister
· Often the relationship between the individual and family members can lead to breakdown
· Guilt that they may have caused the disorder increases
Peers
· Peers may reject the individual
· Bullying from other groups
· Frustration
· Embarrassment and criticism or remarks from others can be taken seriously

b) The practical implications for teachers and schools, including curriculum and teaching adaptions
· Create a school and classroom environment of respect with zero tolerance bullying
· Teach students and their families about healthy nutrition and eating habits and support this with healthy food choices and positive role modelling
· Avoid making comments about students appearances, either positive or negative
· Encourage students of all ethnic and cultural groups to participate in sports and other athletic activities
· Provide the student with compulsory non overwhelming or threatening activity throughout the day
· Healthy canteen; invite classes to visit the canteen and learn about healthy eating
· Involve students in planning menus
· Put posters in canteens regarding nutrition and healthy eating
· Portray healthy eating habits and nutritional guidelines in newsletters so parents are aware of the importance of maintaining health
· Implement school policies that make healthy foods available
· Allow students to eat healthy snacks during class time to encourage eating healthily
· Provide nutrition education workshops and take home work
c) The issues raised for teachers and those working in educational settings
· Dealing with bullying and discrimination
· Reinforcing parent teacher programs to ensure the issue is being acknowledged
· Achievement- grades
· Peer acceptance; social interaction
· Getting the individual involved in a health program

What is Nutrition?
Nutrition is the process in which you consume food our nourishing liquids, digest and absorb them, and use them for health, growth and development (WHO, 2010).
Background information
· Nutrition is important for health – 5 of 10 leading risks as causes
of disease are related to nutrition.
· Diet of children at top of political agenda for health
repercussions later in life and immediate effects on physical and
mental health and overall well-being.
· Popular interest grew in 2005 with Jamie’s School Dinners.
· Raised questions about the impact of unhealthy diets on the
wellbeing of children.

Key findings
· Food preferences are affected by social and family factors such as the behaviour of parents and peers, advertising and marketing practices related to food consumption.
· Therefore, interventions designed to promote healthy eating among children should address all of these factors.
· Children with nutritional deficiencies are particularly susceptible to the moment-to moment metabolic changes that impact upon cognitive ability and performance of the brain.
· Nutrition is believed to impact upon behaviour, which has the potential to affect school performance and interaction with peers, and compromise self-esteem.
· Exclusion in the school environment can often accompany overweight and obese status among children and can add further difficulty to the school experience and ultimately performance.

My Pyramid
Your body needs a variety of foods to stay healthy, happy and strong. The 5 food groups; grain group, dairy group, fruit and vegetable group and the meat group were an idea that we should choose equally between them, making sure we get a little from each group during the day in order to eat a balanced diet.
The new My Pyramid Plan uses the same basic food groups but it arranges them in a way that shows which ones we should be eating more of and which we should be eating less of.
The pyramid is made up of vertical stripes. The widest sections are filled with foods we should get plenty of everyday, whilst the narrower sections represent foods we should eat less of.
From left to right the major food pyramid sections are; grains, vegetables, fruits, milk, meat and beans.
Picture1.jpgSource - http://www.fns.usda.gov/eatsmartplayhardhealthylifestyle/tools/mypyramidtracker.htmWhat’s good about each group?
The Grains Group
· Carbohydrates: source of quick energy fuel
· B Vitamins: energy and growth
· Thiamine: strengthens the nervous system

The Vegetable Group
· Vitamin C: helps us absorb iron and essential for teeth and gums
· Vitamin A: maintains skin and hair, helps with eyesight
· Vitamin B6: helps us grow and improve brain function
· Fibre: prevents disease and moves the digestive system

The Fruit Group
· Vitamin A: growth and eyesight, healthy skin and hair
· Potassium: helps us work our muscles
· Fibre: Carbohydrates and Vitamin C

The Milk Group
· Calcium: important for strong bones and teeth
· Protein: helps grow and repair body tissues
· Vitamin D: helps build strong bones
· Riboflavin: energy and body growth

The Meat and Beans Group
Protein: grow and repair body tissues when they need it
Iron: good for your blood
Niacin: helps convert food to energy
Vitamin B6: helps grow and improve brain function
Vitamin B12: helps make red blood cells
Zinc: good for growth and bones, eyes, skin, hair and nails


Healthy Eating Policies
1. Integration of school food service and nutrition education
· Invite classes to visit the canteen and learn how to prepare healthy foods
· Involve students in preparing school menus and recipes
· Offer foods that reinforce classroom lessons
· Post brochures and posters on nutrition in canteens
· Display information about available foods and give students opportunities to practice food analysis and selection

2. School meals initiatives for healthy children
· Help develop and implement school policies that make healthy foods available
· Educate parents about the value of school meals
· Helps schools access and assess community public health and nutrition services
· Offer nutrition education workshops and screening services
· Assign nutrition education homework

To ensure a healthy future for children, school based nutrition education programs must become a national priority. These programs should be part of comprehensive school health programs and reach students from preschool through to high school. School leaders, community leaders and parents must commit to implementing and sustaining nutrition education programs within the schools. Such support is crucial to promoting healthy eating behaviours. Picture2.jpgSource - http://www.pattayagym.com/References
Centre for Research on the Wider Benefits of Learning. (2009). Retrieved on 3, September from: www.learningbenefits.net

DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria of Mental Disorders. (n.d). Retrieved on 3, September from: http://www.psychologynet.org/dsm.html

Food Pyramid. (July, 2009). Retrieved on 5, September from: http://erin-wnax.itmblog.com/2009/07/01/

Fraternity and Sorority Programs. (n.d). Retrieved on 12, September from: http://arizonagreek.orgsync.com/org/hwha/eatingdisorder

Guidelines for School Health Programs to Promote Lifelong Healthy Eating. (2006). Retrieved on 3, September from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwrhtml/00042446.htm

Hayley Wilde, the woman who defeated anorexia. (April, 2008). Retrieved on 5, September from: http://juicefriends.com/hayley-wilde-the-woman-who-defeated-anorexia.html

It’s My Life. Body. Food Smarts. The Food Pyramid. (2005). Retrieved on 12, September from: http://pbskids.org/itsmylife/body/foodsmarts/article2.html

Kids and Eating Disorders. (1995). Retrieved on 7, September from: http://kidshealth.org/kid/health_problems/learning_problem/eatdisorder.html

Laramie County School District- Nutrition services school meal overview. (2010). Retrieved on 7, September from: http://www.laramie1.org/modules/cms/pages.phtml?sessionid=8868e60a84313400870358962c4026e1&pageid=18442&sessionid=8868e60a84313400870358962c4026e1

National Association of Anorexia and Associated Disorders. (2010). Retrieved on 12, September from: http://www.anad.org/

Nutritional Issues in Eating Disorders for Children and Adolescants. (January, 2005). Retrieved on 3, September from: The Royal Children’s Hospital & Health Service District: http://www.health.qld.gov.au/cchs/Gen_Nutrition_Activity/eat_dis_chld.pdf

Tackling Childhood Obesity| Radio times| WHYY. (February, 2010). Retrieved on 12, September from: http://whyy.org/cms/radiotimes/2010/02/16/tackling-childhood-obesity/

Undernutrition, Nutritional Disorders, THE MERCK MANUAL OF HEALTH AND AGEING. (n.d). Retrieved on 5, September from: http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual_ha/sec3/ch17/ch17b.html

University of Maryland Medical Centre. (n.d). Retrieved on 3, September from: http://www.umm.edu/

Weighing the facts: Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa. (April, 2008). Retrived on 7, September from: http://weighingthefacts.blogspot.com/2008/04/eating-disorders-bulimia-nervosa.html

World Health Organisation|Nutritional Disorders. (2010). Retrieved on 7, September from: http://www.who.int/topics/nutrition_disorders/en/